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force FADT to use 32 bit addresses rather than the
64 bit X_* addresses. Some firmware have broken 64
bit addresses for force ACPI ignore these and use
the older legacy 32 bit addresses.

acpica_no_return_repair [HW, ACPI]
Disable AML predefined validation mechanism
This mechanism can repair the evaluation result to make
the return objects more ACPI specification compliant.
This option is useful for developers to identify the
root cause of an AML interpreter issue when the issue
has something to do with the repair mechanism.

acpi.debug_layer= [HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
acpi.debug_level= [HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
Format: <int>
CONFIG_ACPI_DEBUG must be enabled to produce any ACPI
debug output. Bits in debug_layer correspond to a
_COMPONENT in an ACPI source file, e.g.,
Bits in debug_level correspond to a level in
ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT statements, e.g.,
The debug_level mask defaults to "info". See
Documentation/acpi/debug.txt for more information about
debug layers and levels.

Enable processor driver info messages:
Enable PCI/PCI interrupt routing info messages:
Enable AML "Debug" output, i.e., stores to the Debug
object while interpreting AML:
acpi.debug_layer=0xffffffff acpi.debug_level=0x2
Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:
acpi.debug_layer=0x2 acpi.debug_level=0xffffffff

Some values produce so much output that the system is
unusable. The "log_buf_len" parameter may be useful
if you need to capture more output.

acpi_enforce_resources= [ACPI]
{ strict | lax | no }
Check for resource conflicts between native drivers
and ACPI OperationRegions (SystemIO and SystemMemory
only). IO ports and memory declared in ACPI might be
used by the ACPI subsystem in arbitrary AML code and
can interfere with legacy drivers.
strict (default): access to resources claimed by ACPI
is denied; legacy drivers trying to access reserved
resources will fail to bind to device using them.
lax: access to resources claimed by ACPI is allowed;
legacy drivers trying to access reserved resources
will bind successfully but a warning message is logged.
no: ACPI OperationRegions are not marked as reserved,
no further checks are performed.

acpi_force_table_verification [HW,ACPI]
Enable table checksum verification during early stage.
By default, this is disabled due to x86 early mapping
size limitation.

acpi_irq_balance [HW,ACPI]
ACPI will balance active IRQs
default in APIC mode

acpi_irq_nobalance [HW,ACPI]
ACPI will not move active IRQs (default)
default in PIC mode

acpi_irq_isa= [HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, mark listed IRQs used by ISA
Format: <irq>,<irq>...

acpi_irq_pci= [HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, clear listed IRQs for
use by PCI
Format: <irq>,<irq>...

acpi_mask_gpe= [HW,ACPI]
Due to the existence of _Lxx/_Exx, some GPEs triggered
by unsupported hardware/firmware features can result in
GPE floodings that cannot be automatically disabled by
the GPE dispatcher.
This facility can be used to prevent such uncontrolled
GPE floodings.
Format: <int>

acpi_no_auto_serialize [HW,ACPI]
Disable auto-serialization of AML methods
AML control methods that contain the opcodes to create
named objects will be marked as "Serialized" by the
auto-serialization feature.
This feature is enabled by default.
This option allows to turn off the feature.

acpi_no_memhotplug [ACPI] Disable memory hotplug. Useful for kdump

acpi_no_static_ssdt [HW,ACPI]
Disable installation of static SSDTs at early boot time
By default, SSDTs contained in the RSDT/XSDT will be
installed automatically and they will appear under
This option turns off this feature.
Note that specifying this option does not affect
dynamic table installation which will install SSDT
tables to /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/dynamic.

acpi_rsdp= [ACPI,EFI,KEXEC]
Pass the RSDP address to the kernel, mostly used
on machines running EFI runtime service to boot the
second kernel for kdump.

acpi_os_name= [HW,ACPI] Tell ACPI BIOS the name of the OS
Format: To spoof as Windows 98: ="Microsoft Windows"

acpi_rev_override [ACPI] Override the _REV object to return 5 (instead
of 2 which is mandated by ACPI 6) as the supported ACPI
specification revision (when using this switch, it may
be necessary to carry out a cold reboot _twice_ in a
row to make it take effect on the platform firmware).

acpi_osi= [HW,ACPI] Modify list of supported OS interface strings
acpi_osi="string1" # add string1
acpi_osi="!string2" # remove string2
acpi_osi=!* # remove all strings
acpi_osi=! # disable all built-in OS vendor
acpi_osi=!! # enable all built-in OS vendor
acpi_osi= # disable all strings

'acpi_osi=!' can be used in combination with single or
multiple 'acpi_osi="string1"' to support specific OS
vendor string(s). Note that such command can only
affect the default state of the OS vendor strings, thus
it cannot affect the default state of the feature group
strings and the current state of the OS vendor strings,
specifying it multiple times through kernel command line
is meaningless. This command is useful when one do not
care about the state of the feature group strings which
should be controlled by the OSPM.
1. 'acpi_osi=! acpi_osi="Windows 2000"' is equivalent
to 'acpi_osi="Windows 2000" acpi_osi=!', they all
can make '_OSI("Windows 2000")' TRUE.

'acpi_osi=' cannot be used in combination with other
'acpi_osi=' command lines, the _OSI method will not
exist in the ACPI namespace. NOTE that such command can
only affect the _OSI support state, thus specifying it
multiple times through kernel command line is also
1. 'acpi_osi=' can make 'CondRefOf(_OSI, Local1)'

'acpi_osi=!*' can be used in combination with single or
multiple 'acpi_osi="string1"' to support specific
string(s). Note that such command can affect the
current state of both the OS vendor strings and the
feature group strings, thus specifying it multiple times
through kernel command line is meaningful. But it may
still not able to affect the final state of a string if
there are quirks related to this string. This command
is useful when one want to control the state of the
feature group strings to debug BIOS issues related to
the OSPM features.
1. 'acpi_osi="Module Device" acpi_osi=!*' can make
'_OSI("Module Device")' FALSE.
2. 'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Module Device"' can make
'_OSI("Module Device")' TRUE.
3. 'acpi_osi=! acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Windows 2000"' is
equivalent to
'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi=! acpi_osi="Windows 2000"'
'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Windows 2000" acpi_osi=!',
they all will make '_OSI("Windows 2000")' TRUE.

acpi_pm_good [X86]
Override the pmtimer bug detection: force the kernel
to assume that this machine's pmtimer latches its value
and always returns good values.

acpi_sci= [HW,ACPI] ACPI System Control Interrupt trigger mode
Format: { level | edge | high | low }

acpi_skip_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
Recognize and ignore IRQ0/pin2 Interrupt Override.
For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.

acpi_sleep= [HW,ACPI] Sleep options
Format: { s3_bios, s3_mode, s3_beep, s4_nohwsig,
old_ordering, nonvs, sci_force_enable, nobl }
See Documentation/power/video.txt for information on
s3_bios and s3_mode.
s3_beep is for debugging; it makes the PC's speaker beep
as soon as the kernel's real-mode entry point is called.
s4_nohwsig prevents ACPI hardware signature from being
used during resume from hibernation.
old_ordering causes the ACPI 1.0 ordering of the _PTS
control method, with respect to putting devices into
low power states, to be enforced (the ACPI 2.0 ordering
of _PTS is used by default).
nonvs prevents the kernel from saving/restoring the
ACPI NVS memory during suspend/hibernation and resume.
sci_force_enable causes the kernel to set SCI_EN directly
on resume from S1/S3 (which is against the ACPI spec,
but some broken systems don't work without it).
nobl causes the internal blacklist of systems known to
behave incorrectly in some ways with respect to system
suspend and resume to be ignored (use wisely).

acpi_use_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
Use timer override. For some broken Nvidia NF5 boards
that require a timer override, but don't have HPET

add_efi_memmap [EFI; X86] Include EFI memory map in
kernel's map of available physical RAM.

agp= [AGP]
{ off | try_unsupported }
off: disable AGP support
try_unsupported: try to drive unsupported chipsets
(may crash computer or cause data corruption)

See Documentation/sound/alsa/alsa-parameters.txt

alignment= [KNL,ARM]
Allow the default userspace alignment fault handler
behaviour to be specified. Bit 0 enables warnings,
bit 1 enables fixups, and bit 2 sends a segfault.

align_va_addr= [X86-64]
Align virtual addresses by clearing slice [14:12] when
allocating a VMA at process creation time. This option
gives you up to 3% performance improvement on AMD F15h
machines (where it is enabled by default) for a
CPU-intensive style benchmark, and it can vary highly in
a microbenchmark depending on workload and compiler.

32: only for 32-bit processes
64: only for 64-bit processes
on: enable for both 32- and 64-bit processes
off: disable for both 32- and 64-bit processes

alloc_snapshot [FTRACE]
Allocate the ftrace snapshot buffer on boot up when the
main buffer is allocated. This is handy if debugging
and you need to use tracing_snapshot() on boot up, and
do not want to use tracing_snapshot_alloc() as it needs
to be done where GFP_KERNEL allocations are allowed.

amd_iommu= [HW,X86-64]
Pass parameters to the AMD IOMMU driver in the system.
Possible values are:
fullflush - enable flushing of IO/TLB entries when
they are unmapped. Otherwise they are
flushed before they will be reused, which
is a lot of faster
off - do not initialize any AMD IOMMU found in
the system
force_isolation - Force device isolation for all
devices. The IOMMU driver is not
allowed anymore to lift isolation
requirements as needed. This option
does not override iommu=pt

amd_iommu_dump= [HW,X86-64]
Enable AMD IOMMU driver option to dump the ACPI table
for AMD IOMMU. With this option enabled, AMD IOMMU
driver will print ACPI tables for AMD IOMMU during
IOMMU initialization.

amd_iommu_intr= [HW,X86-64]
Specifies one of the following AMD IOMMU interrupt
remapping modes:
legacy - Use legacy interrupt remapping mode.
vapic - Use virtual APIC mode, which allows IOMMU
to inject interrupts directly into guest.
This mode requires kvm-amd.avic=1.
(Default when IOMMU HW support is present.) [HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support
Map of devices attached to JOY0DAT and JOY1DAT
Format: <a>,<b>
See also Documentation/input/joydev/joystick.rst [HW,JOY] Analog joystick and gamepad support
Specifies type or capabilities of an analog joystick
connected to one of 16 gameports
Format: <type1>,<type2>,..<type16>

apc= [HW,SPARC]
Power management functions (SPARCstation-4/5 + deriv.)
Format: noidle
Disable APC CPU standby support. SPARCstation-Fox does
not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have
APC and your system crashes randomly.

apic= [APIC,X86] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
Change the output verbosity whilst booting
Format: { quiet (default) | verbose | debug }
Change the amount of debugging information output
when initialising the APIC and IO-APIC components.
For X86-32, this can also be used to specify an APIC
driver name.
Format: apic=driver_name
Examples: apic=bigsmp

apic_extnmi= [APIC,X86] External NMI delivery setting
Format: { bsp (default) | all | none }
bsp: External NMI is delivered only to CPU 0
all: External NMIs are broadcast to all CPUs as a
backup of CPU 0
none: External NMI is masked for all CPUs. This is
useful so that a dump capture kernel won't be
shot down by NMI

autoconf= [IPV6]
See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

show_lapic= [APIC,X86] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
Limit apic dumping. The parameter defines the maximal
number of local apics being dumped. Also it is possible
to set it to "all" by meaning -- no limit here.
Format: { 1 (default) | 2 | ... | all }.
The parameter valid if only apic=debug or
apic=verbose is specified.
Example: apic=debug show_lapic=all

apm= [APM] Advanced Power Management
See header of arch/x86/kernel/apm_32.c.

arcrimi= [HW,NET] ARCnet - "RIM I" (entirely mem-mapped) cards
Format: <io>,<irq>,<nodeID>

ataflop= [HW,M68k]

atarimouse= [HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse

atkbd.extra= [HW] Enable extra LEDs and keys on IBM RapidAccess,
EzKey and similar keyboards

atkbd.reset= [HW] Reset keyboard during initialization

atkbd.set= [HW] Select keyboard code set
Format: <int> (2 = AT (default), 3 = PS/2)

atkbd.scroll= [HW] Enable scroll wheel on MS Office and similar

atkbd.softraw= [HW] Choose between synthetic and real raw mode
Format: <bool> (0 = real, 1 = synthetic (default))

atkbd.softrepeat= [HW]
Use software keyboard repeat

audit= [KNL] Enable the audit sub-system
Format: { "0" | "1" | "off" | "on" }
0 | off - kernel audit is disabled and can not be
enabled until the next reboot
unset - kernel audit is initialized but disabled and
will be fully enabled by the userspace auditd.
1 | on - kernel audit is initialized and partially
enabled, storing at most audit_backlog_limit
messages in RAM until it is fully enabled by the
userspace auditd.
Default: unset

audit_backlog_limit= [KNL] Set the audit queue size limit.
Format: <int> (must be >=0)
Default: 64